## Explore chapters and articles related to this topic

### Technology of Applied Systems Analysis

*Published in F. P. Tarasenko, Applied Systems Analysis, 2020*

Consider a scale that has both absolute zero and absolute unit. This scale has no degrees of freedom, and it is unique. These are the qualities of the numerical axis, which is naturally called the absolute scale. An important feature of the absolute scale is that the data values in it do not have dimensions, names, and its unit is absolute (“item”). This gives the data in this scale a special status (in English they are called pure numbers) — with them you can perform operations that are not valid with named numbers. (Record 2 cm2 is valid, but 32cm is meaningless.) They can be used as an indicator of the degree, the base of the logarithm, and any trigonometric and other transcendental transformations are allowed for them.

### Fractal Mechanics Is Not Quantum but Original—Geometric

*Published in Anirban Bandyopadhyay, Nanobrain, 2020*

Scale relativity: Fractal space-time and its relation to quantum mechanics were proposed in 1981 (Abbot and Wise, 1981) and fractal space-time came into being (Ord, 1983). Nottale coined the term “scale relativity” a decade later (Nottale, 1989, 1992). Scale relativity hypothesizes that space-time in nature is fractal and quantum behavior comes from that fractal feature. Einstein said, space-time is curved, and the proponents of fractal space-time suggested that the traversing paths through the curved space-time are fractal. Indeed, fractal geometries allow studying such non-differentiable paths. The fractal interpretation of quantum mechanics has been further specified (Abbot and Wise, 1981) showing that the paths have a fractal dimension 2, if infinite series then 4+∅3 (Prigogine et al., 1995). Only scale ratios have a physical meaning, never an absolute scale. Multiple proposals exist that quantum mechanical paths or Feynman diagrams are a fractal path (Kröger, 1997). The fractal path has non-differentiability. However, the self-similarity allows generating the paths using complex differential equations. Some researchers used infinite cantor sets, still, a singular mathematical function express all of it. The fundamental “postulates” of quantum mechanics were derived (Ben et al., 2005) starting from scale relativity. Schrödinger’s equation, the Klein-Gordon, and the Dirac equation can then be derived (Célérier et al., 2003).

### HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

*Published in Fred Hall, Roger Greeno, Building Services Handbook, 2011*

TEMPERATURE is measured on a scale between two fixed points. These points are chosen at normal atmospheric pressure to represent water at the melting point of ice as zero, and the boiling point at 100, hence the term centigrade. A point on this scale is known as degrees Celcius (C). The thermodynamic or absolute scale of temperature is represented in degrees Kelvin (K). Temperature intervals are the same as Celcius, but Kelvin originates at more internal energy can be 273,,15C, the point at which no from a body. Temperature extracted

### Investigation of the viscoelastic properties of 4-propoxy-biphenyl-4-carbonitrile

*Published in Liquid Crystals, 2019*

*Pınar Özden, Atilla Eren Mamuk, Nejmettin Avcı*

where is the activation energy of the liquid crystalline material, is Boltzmann’s constant and T is the temperature on the absolute scale. The variation of ln(γ1) with is illustrated in Figure 4(b). From the slope of the curve, the associated activation energy can be evaluated. is found to be about kJ/mol in the order of magnitude for conventional calamitic molecules [44,45,67].

### History of ‘temperature’: maturation of a measurement concept

*Published in Annals of Science, 2020*

Thomson and Joule calculated that the relationship between temperature, pressure, and volume for an actual gas is the following.T is temperature on the new absolute scale; V is volume; P is pressure; and C, A, J, and K are constants and measurable gas-specific parameters.120 This let Thomson and Joule relate the new absolute scale to readings on actual gas thermometers. Temperature, pressure, and volume follow the ideal gas laws, with a gas-specific adjustment due to deviation by actual gases from those laws.

### Feasibility of using bio-oil from biodiesel production for bio-bitumen creation

*Published in Road Materials and Pavement Design, 2023*

*Jorge Pais, Caio Rubens Santos, Marina Cabette, Loic Hilliou, Jorge Ribeiro, Hainian Wang, Mohd Rosli Mohd Hasan*

Because there is a linear relationship between the temperature in the Rankine scale (absolute scale of thermodynamic temperature) and the double logarithmic of the viscosity, a linear model was developed for the viscosity of the bio-bitumen, as expressed in Equation 6. In this equation, Visco is the double logarithmic of the viscosity (cP), BHO is the bio-oil content (%), T is the temperature in the Rankine scale, and ai are statistically determined coefficients, with a R2 = 0.999, and included in Table 5.