## Explore chapters and articles related to this topic

### Key Generation

*Published in Vinay Rishiwal, Sudeep Tanwar, Rashmi Chaudhry, Blockchain for 6G-Enabled Network-Based Applications, 2023*

*Surendra Kumar, Narander Kumar*

Encryption uses a public key in plaintext conversion and decryption using a private key for ciphertext conversion. Both public and private keys are based on the concept of prime numbers and are calculated by multiplying the prime numbers. The size of the key is 1024 to 2048 bits. AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) uses an advanced encryption scheme: 128, 192, or 256 variable key bits, which are used to encrypt data blocks with 128,192 or 256 symmetric keys. The encryption is done based on the key size in 10, 12, and 14 rounds. The DES (Data Encryption Standard) encryption algorithm has 56-bit keys. The triple-DES is an advancement of the DES encryption algorithm [10]. The key length of DES is increased by using the algorithm thrice with three keys. Here the encryption algorithm is carried out at three levels, and the DES key size is extended in the Triple-DES algorithm using the DES algorithm thrice with three keys.

### Security and Privacy Aspects of AI, IoT, Big Data and Blockchain in Healthcare Industry

*Published in Pushpa Singh, Divya Mishra, Kirti Seth, Transformation in Healthcare with Emerging Technologies, 2022*

*Apoorva Joshi, Ambrish Kumar Sharma, Sanjeev Gour, Pratima Guatam*

Basically, AES is a cryptographic algorithm that is used to encrypt data. Concerning medical data, the amount of medical image transmission has expanded significantly. E-health requires the transmission of digital visual data on a regular basis. Medical transmission security is also becoming a bigger issue. In the medical field, for example, the need for quick and secure diagnosis is critical. The security of healthcare data has become increasingly critical in recent years. Encryption or data concealing algorithms can be used to protect this multimedia data. Data compression is required to reduce the transmission time. So far, some resolutions that integrate image encryption and compression have been presented (Hylock et al., 2019). Evaluate the performance of traditional cryptography like data encryption standard, international data encryption algorithm, and advanced encryption standard, as well as compression methods like Joint Photographic Experts Group and others. As the new encryption standard, AES uses a block cipher to jumble computations on a predetermined block size of 128 bits, using the key and round integers. The core function is repeated for a number of cycles, the number of which is determined by the key length. The resistance of the AES algorithm against cryptographic algorithms assaults improves as the number of cycles used increases.

### Coding

*Published in Goff Hill, The Cable and Telecommunications Professionals' Reference, 2012*

Many cryptosystems have been developed, both by government agencies and commercial organizations. The first public standard system was the National Bureau of Standards Data Encryption Standard (DES), which is a block cipher with a 64-bit block length involving both substitution and transposition under the control of a 56-bit key (NBS, 1977). The original proposal was for a 64-bit key, and there are claims that DES keys have been broken in less than 24 hours and that DES is therefore too insecure for many applications. Triple DES, which consists of applying DES three times in succession, is believed to be secure in practice. DES has now been superseded by the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael (NIST, 2001). AES has a fixed block size of 128 bits and a key size of 128, 192, or 256 bits.

### An AES Implementation with Improved PDL Based PUF Key Generator for IoT Devices

*Published in IETE Technical Review, 2023*

*Amol K. Boke, Sangeeta Nakhate, Arvind Rajawat*

AES (Advanced Encryption Systems) is a private key cryptography with data block of 128 bits encrypted or decrypted using a key of one of three sizes. Depending on the key size, the AES is divided into three types; AES-128, AES-192, and AES-254. This paper contains the implementation of AES-128 [1,2,12], which has ten rounds. The initial step is the round key's addition, where plain text is ex-ored with the initial round key. In the next step, all four operations, i.e. ByteSubstitution ShiftRow MixColumn, and AddRoundKey, are conducted on resulted data for rounds 1–9. The last step comprises only three processes, i.e. ByteSubstitution, ShiftRow, and AddRoundKey, which conclude round 10. The most critical aspect of this process is the encryption/decryption key (Figure 2).

### A partial image encryption scheme based on DWT and texture segmentation

*Published in Cogent Engineering, 2022*

*Zainab Noori Ghanim, Suha Abdul Raheem Khoja*

AES is a symmetric block cipher which has a fixed block size of 128 bits and a key size of 128, 192 or 256 bits. The number of rounds in the algorithm may be 10, 12 or 14 depending on the key length. The encryption process begins by arranging the plain text and the key column wise in 4 × 4 array called a state. The AES have four transformations or stages which are SubBytes, ShiftRows, MixColumns and AddRoundKey. The SubBytes transformation permutes the state array bytes according to 16 × 16 array of bytes known as S-box. The S-box is based on the Galois Field GF (28) multiplication. In the next stage the rows of the state array obtained from the previous transformation are cyclically left shifted according to the row number. Row 0 is not shifted while rows 1, 2, 3 are shifted to the left one, two and three bytes respectively. The output of the shift row stage is used as a state array for MixColumns stage, which is a substitution that uses arithmetic over GF (2^8), which operates on the state array column by column. Each column is considered a four terms GF (2^8) polynomial that is multiplied by a fixed polynomial to get a new state array. Each element in this state array is the sum of products of one row and one column elements.

### Efficiency Analysis of Cryptographic Algorithms for Image Data Security at Cloud Environment

*Published in IETE Journal of Research, 2021*

The AES is developed by NIST (National Institute of Standard and Technology) to reduce the vulnerabilities of DES and 3DES. AES uses three different sizes of keys 128, 192, and 256 bits [21]. AES-128 uses ten rounds, AES192 has 12 rounds, and AES-256 consists of 14 rounds. The algorithm peruses the substitution byte, shift rows, mixed columns, and adds round Key [22]. Furthermore, each round goes through this series of steps. AES algorithm is more secure compared to other algorithms that maintain a strong avalanche effect [23]. Brute force attacks cannot crack the encrypted text [24]. So AES can be used in many applications. Sometimes, the combination of boomerang and rectangle attacks with related key differentials may be attacked the AES algorithm [25]. There is a chance to break the round versions of AES by this attack but not complete [26].