One of the key concerns facing the publishing industry is the need to reduce waste from print over-runs. We continue to work to improve the quality and accuracy of the customer data we use to forecast print runs accurately.

In addition to this, we continue to work to reduce waste through the increasing use of Print On Demand (POD). This enables us to raise a print request to our digital printers only when we have got actual demand from a customer, rather than printing copies based on anticipated demand. We are continually making titles available on a POD basis, thereby reducing the need to warehouse high stocks of books, some of which inevitably end up being pulped. For US book titles we operate a combination of POD and also a system called micro-inventory, which means that a very small inventory of back-titles is held and this is then automatically reprinted when it hits a pre-determined level.