Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

Lawrence E. Mathes, Michael K. Axthelm

in Comparitive Pathobiology of Viral Diseases

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is believed to be a major cause of viral respiratory disease in cattle. The first isolation of a respiratory syncytial virus was from an outbreak of upper respiratory illness in a chimpanzee colony. The human respiratory syncytial virus has subsequently been shown to be a major cause of respiratory disease in infants. Bovine and human respiratory syncytial virus are tentatively grouped with pneumonia virus of the mouse to make up the genus Pneumovirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Gross lesions from naturally occurring cases are principally found in the respiratory tract and consist of pneumonia characterized by lobular consolidation of primarily anterior lung lobes and interstitial emphysema. In BRSV-challenged gnotobiotic or colostrum-deprived calves, serum neutralizing antibody is detectable by day 6 to 13.

Menangle Virus

Dongyou Liu

in Molecular Detection of Animal Viral Pathogens

Paramyxoviruses are a diverse group of enveloped viruses that infect vertebrates, primarily mammals and birds, as well as reptiles and sh. The family Paramyxoviridae is divided into two subfamilies, Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae, the member species of which can be distinguished on the basis of

ultrastructure, genome organization, sequence re latedness of the encoded proteins, antigenic cross-reactivity, and biological properties of the attachment proteins (presence or absence of hemagglutinating and neuraminidase activities).6,7 Pneumovirinae contains two genera, Pneumovirus and Metapneumovirus, whereas Paramyxovirinae is separated into seven genera, Rubulavirus, Avulavirus, Respirovirus, Aquaparamyxovirus, Ferlavirus, Henipavirus, and Morbillivirus, the type species of which are mumps virus, Newcastle disease virus, Sendai virus, Atlantic salmon paramyxovirus, Fer de Lance paramyxovirus, Hendra virus, and measles virus, respectively.

Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections

Marcello Lanari, Silvia Vandini, Giacomo Faldella

in Human Respiratory Viral Infections

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a member of the pneumovirus genus and paramyxoviridae family, discovered in 1956. It is an RNA virus with an enveloped, nonsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded genome with 10 genes encoded for 11 proteins. RSV is the most important cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants and it is associated with hospitalization and mortality during the first years of life. RSV disease is particularly severe in some groups of high-risk infants, in whom the infection often leads to severe respiratory failure, cardiac complications, and death. RSV infection is one of the most important causes of rehospitalization and respiratory deterioration in preterm infants with chronic lung disease. Clinical manifestations of the RSV infection include both upper respiratory tract infections and LRTIs. Respiratory morbidity of preterm infants increases after an episode of RSV LRTI, with an increase of respiratory symptoms, daycare attendance, hospitalization for respiratory disease, and use of drugs as inhaled bronchodilators.

Avian pneumovirus infection of laying hens: Experimental studies

Published in Avian Pathology

J.K. A. CookF. OrthelM.A. WoodsS.J. OrbellW. BaxendaleM.B. Huggins 

Administration of a virulent strain of avian pneumovirus (APV) to specific pathogen free laying hens by the oculonasal route failed to induce a drop in egg production or any adverse effects on eggshell quality. However, intravenous (i.v.) inoculation of the same strain caused a substantial drop in egg production and a high incidence of soft and thin-shelled eggs. Some respiratory signs were also observed and the hens appeared sick, with diarrhoea being observed in approximately one-half of the hens between 4 and 11 days post-inoculation (p.i.). APV antigen was detected in the oviduct epithelium up to 9 days p.i. This challenge model was then used to investigate the efficacy of live attenuated turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) vaccine administered alone at 1 day old, or an inactivated TRT vaccine (at 16 weeks), or a combined programme using both vaccines, in protecting against this challenge. Neither the live nor the inactivated vaccine alone protected against clinical signs (respiratory infection or diarrhoea).

Immunization strategies for the prevention of pneumovirus infections

Published in Expert Review of Vaccines

Nicholas BennettJohn EllisCynthia BonvilleHelene RosenbergJoseph Domachowske 

The human pneumovirus pathogen, human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), has counterparts that infect cows (bovine RSV), sheep (ovine RSV), goats (caprine RSV) and rodents (pneumonia virus of mice). Each pneumovirus is host specific and results in a spectrum of disease, ranging from mild upper-respiratory illness to severe bronchiolitis and pneumonia with significant morbidity and mortality. Given the public health burden caused by human RSV and the concomitant agricultural impact of bovine RSV, these two viruses are considered as prime targets for the development of safe and effective vaccines. In this review, we describe the strategies used to develop vaccines against human and bovine RSV and introduce the pneumonia virus mouse model as a novel and invaluable tool for preclinical studies and new vaccine strategies.

Synergy between avian pneumovirus and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkeys

Published in Avian Pathology

Maja MarienAnnemie DecostereAn MartelKoen ChiersRobrecht FroymanHans Nauwynck 

The purpose of this study was to assess the possible synergism between Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) and avian pneumovirus (APV), inoculated into turkeys via the natural route, for the reproduction of respiratory disease. Three-week-old specific pathogen free turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with either APV subtype A, ORT or both agents using two different time intervals (3 and 5 days) between APV and ORT. The birds were observed clinically on a daily basis and swabbed intratracheally at short, regular intervals. They were killed at 1, 3, 5, 8 and 15 days post single or dual inoculation and examined for gross lesions at necropsy. Samples of the turbinates, trachea, lungs, air sacs, heart, pericardium and liver were taken for bacteriological and/or histological examination. Combined APV/ORT infections resulted in overt clinical signs and a longer persistence of ORT in the respiratory tract and aggravated the macroscopic and histological lesions in comparison with the groups given single infections. In all ORT-challenged turkeys, ORT was isolated from the turbinates, trachea and lungs, but in turkeys infected with both agents ORT was frequently found in the air sacs and on a single occasion in the heart and pericardium.