The salivary glands
The parotid gland is the largest of the paired salivary glands. It is a serious gland producing watery saliva. It is situated in the cheek, lying in the space between the mastoid process and the mandible. The innervation of the salivary glands follows a complex course. The salivary glands may be affected by a range of disease processes. Disease may be limited to a single gland, but there are also systemic disorders that may affect a number or all of the glands. There are three main paired salivary glands: the parotid, the submandibular and the sublingual. There are also many tiny minor salivary glands scattered around the oral cavity and the oropharynx. The two main symptoms that may arise from disease of the salivary glands are swelling and pain. Minor and major salivary glands are affected by the disease, which leads to reduced saliva flow and therefore xerostomia.
Gastrointestinal tract and salivary glands
A Stewart Whitley, Jan Dodgeon, Angela Meadows, Jane Cullingworth, Ken Holmes, Marcus Jackson, Graham Hoadley, Randeep Kumar Kulshrestha in Clark’s Procedures in Diagnostic Imaging: A System-Based Approach, 2020
The presence of saliva within the oral cavity is necessary to initiate the digestive process and it also acts as an important lubricant of the intraoral mucosa. Imaging has a role in evaluating the extent of salivary gland disease in patients who present with a dry mouth and those patients that present with pain prior to eating. There is a range of conditions that affect the salivary glands and these can be categorised as follows: acute or chronic inflammatory conditions; inflammatory obstruction secondary to ductal obstruction by a sialolith; cystic lesions; and space-occupying lesions that are either benign or malignant. The most common symptom is the relationship between the eating of food followed by the rapid swelling of the affected salivary gland(s). The pain may be acute or chronic and the extent of swelling can be generalised, recurrent or discrete.
The keratins are a family of water insoluble proteins. Pretreatment of tissue sections with proteolytic enzymes is well known to increase histochemical staining for various antigens. Immunohistochemical identification of keratin proteins, using either polyclonal antikeratin antiserum or monoclonal antibodies against keratin polypeptides, has been enhanced by a prior proteolytic enzyme digestion. Ductal segments in all salivary glands showed positive staining using polyclonal antikeratin antiserum (TK). Epithelial cells in intercalated (ICD), striated (SD), and excretory ducts (ECD) were strongly positive for the TK reaction. All salivary glands of animals showed positive staining for TK in ICD, SD, and ECD ducts, and staining intensities and localizations of those ductal segments varied with different glands and species. Obstructive adenitis or lesions were usually caused by stone formation or by foreign bodies in the main excretory duct. Salivary glands during early degenerating stages are composed of atrophic acinar compartments and dilated ductal segments, which probably developed from intercalated and striated ducts.
An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva
Published in Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, 2014
An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0–579 pmol/L for melatonin, 0–90 nmol/L for cortisol, and 0–622 pmol/L for testosterone. The recovery of spiked material for melatonin ranged from 91–110%, from 83–100% for cortisol and from 80–94% for testosterone. The content of natural hormone in saliva was estimated to be between 0.278 and 6.90 pmol/L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.
Salivaomics for oral diseases biomarkers detection
Published in Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics, 2016
The variation of saliva composition in different physiological and pathological states is well demonstrated. Several saliva constituents (enzymes, hormones, antibodies, cytokines etc.) are up- or down-regulated in respect to benign, premalignant and malignant conditions in the oral cavity, and several patterns of deregulation are associated with specific disorders. Omics technologies have contributed significantly in the identification of alterations in gene expression, transcription, protein coding and small molecules concentration, in biologic systems. In this aspect, salivaomics integrate these technologies in saliva analysis and represent a novel and holistic approach in oral disease management including diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring. This review summarizes the current research in the discovery of biomarkers and molecular signatures with diagnostic or prognostic utility for oral diseases in saliva. The review also focuses on the emerging issues of the salivaomics technology and saliva diagnostics and the translational potential.
Defining saliva and tooth biofilm microbiota in adolescents in a low caries community and characterization by caries status
Published in Journal of Oral Microbiology, 2017
The present study evaluated the microbiota of saliva and tooth biofilm by sequencing segments of the 16S rRNA gene using the common Illumina MiSeq (v3–v4) and the newer PacBio (v1–v8) sequencing platforms and searched for associations with caries in a low-caries population with regular dental care since early childhood. Saliva and tooth biofilm from adolescents and mock bacteria communities were analysed, including validity and reliability estimates. Caries was scored at baseline and 2 years later. The two sequencing platforms revealed similar microbiota patterns for saliva and tooth biofilm, respectively. Saliva microbiota discriminated caries-affected adolescents from caries-free adolescents with enumeration of five species in caries-affected participants and one species thereof predicting 2-year caries increment. Reliability was high and validity was acceptable if appropriate inclusion criteria were determined.